Elements of Five Managerial Mindsets:


Managers possesses different degrees of all abilities


Capelli & Crocker-Hefter, 1995

  • Competitive flexibility more appropriate to recruit from outside
  • Competing in established markets with long standing relationships best rely on internal development

Hard HRM – resource view, line management, systems

Soft HRM – company commitment, teamwork, trust

Hersey & Blanchard, 1982 – organisational success and performance are affected by manager and staff congruence


To evaluate E-V-R congruence

Source of Five Managerial Mindsets:

Thompson (2005)