Frederick (2006)

General Review:

Historic review of CSR, the development in society and the CSR theory progress that have made CSR what it is today.

Core Theory (logical explanation or testable model of interaction):

P 20-21 Bases his CSR theory on 1) Economic and human resources utilized for broad social ends 2) Management as coordinator and team-member linking information 3) Recognize present system (thinking) is an outgrowth of history and cultural tradition (now private gain and profit business system) 4) Recognize behaviour of individual business men is a function of social role in society a(organisation larger than the individual)  b(motivated to take actions not consistent to own ideals) 5)CSR not automatically produced, but results from deliberate and conscious efforts.

P26 “One outcome of business-induced social change is the emergence of a group of “social revolutions”.

P129-135 The nature of business p146 “Because corporation and community comprise one large coevolving, nonlinear system, business’s civic role is ever-evolving, always indeterminate, a moving target”

  1. Motivation is “economizing” capturing energy and channel it to survive, grow and develop
  2. Productivity and innovation is human brains finding new ways (technology) to economize
  3. Organisation is shaped of neural networks based on language, power-dominance hierarchy and social exchange
  4. Goal achievement is enabled by mutual benefit

Core concepts (abstract idea or a mental symbol):

P90 CSR corporation should:

  • Acknowledge ethics are the core in management decisions and policies
  • Employ and train managers that place ethics in every-day work
  • Detect, anticipate and cope with ethical problems affecting company and employees
  • Align current and future policies with core values within the culture

Core framework (structure used to outline, address or solve complex issues):

Core models
(pattern, plan or description showing main object or workings of concept):

P101 Victor Bart & Cullen, John (1988) The Organizational Bases of Ethical Work Climates, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 33, No 1, March, pp 101-125, 25 pages,

Using a modification of a recently developed measure of ethical climates, this paper presents evidence from a survey of 872 employees of four firms that ethical work climates are both multidimensional and multidetermined. The study demonstrates that organizations have distinct types of ethical climates and that there is variance in the ethical climate within organizations by position, tenure, and workgroup membership. Five empirically derived dimensions of ethical climate are described: law and code, caring, instrumentalism, independence, and rules. Analyses of variance reveal significant differences in ethical climates both across and within firms. A theory of ethical climates is developed from organization and economic theory to describe the determinants of ethical climates in organizations. In particular, the sociocultural environment, organizational form, and organization-specific history are identified as determinants of the ethical climates in organizations. The implications of ethical climate for organizational theory are also discussed.

Methods used:

Experience and literature review.


Pvi “The simplest meaning is “learning to live with, and respect, others.” If that sounds like something you first heard in your own family, you’ve got the basic idea”

Relatedness to objective:

Driving CSR agenda p 58-59 Environmental pollution, Discrimination in employment and other business opportunities, consumer abuse, safety and health treat, quality of work life, economic- social- familial- psychological dislocations, detoriation in the quality in urban life, abusive multinational corporations, direct gain from national defence policies, unfair treatment of stockholders

Relatedness to questions:

Driving and /or restraining forces in the future is CSR a benefit or threat to development?

Arguments/points made (set of one or more declarative sentences):