Elements of Levels of Change:
Need Level of changeApproaches/tactics
New mission, different ways of doing things Values, culture, style of management Organizational development
New corporate perspective/strategy Objectives, corporate strategy Strategic planning
Organization structure New organization design
Improved competitive   effectiveness (existing products and services) Competitive strategies, strategic positioning, systems and management roles Empowerment; management by objectives, performance management, job descriptions, policies
Improved efficiencies Business processes Business process re-engineering
Functional strategies, activities, organization of tasks Method study, job enrichment


Categorised in terms of significance


(Daft, 1983) 4 types of change:

  1. Technology
  2. Product/service
  3. Administrative
  4. Attitudes (related change)

Forces for change: Technical, PESTLE, Globalisation, Organisational, Increasing strategic awareness (managers and employees ambitions)

Resistance for change: Threat, Habits, Fear, Organisation structure, Perceived flaws or weaknesses


To determine best change approach

Source of Levels of Change:

(Thompson & Martin, 2005)