Hopkins (2003)

General Review:

Core Theory (logical explanation or testable model of interaction):

P1 “CSR is concerned with treating the stakeholders of the firm ethically or in a responsible manner.”

Core concepts (abstract idea or a mental symbol):

Social Responsiveness is not accepting the social responsibility. Responsibility must be accepted and then responded on. CR describing taking care of shareholders, while adding the word social emphasizes other stakeholders and the environment. P24”Social responsibility encompasses good ethics, both within the walls and without.”

Core framework (structure used to outline, address or solve complex issues):

The Seven Azimuths:

  1. Owner/investors (shareholders and stockholders)
  2. management
    1. What is CSR all about
    2. What are the key advantages of CSR
  1. Reputation is improved among staff and customers
  2. Productivity is improved trough increased innovation and efficiency
  • Shareholder value is increased as social investment funds target the company
  1. The customer base is widened, with no risk of losing existing ones
  2. Motivation and commitment of staff is improved. Recruitment of young bright people is enhanced
  3. The personal satisfaction of management is increased
  1. What are the main steps
  1. Win board support for its introduction of a CSR policy
  2. Lead from the front
  • Appoint a CSR manager, but keep responsibility shared
  1. Understand available CSR measures
  2. Decide upon the key stakeholders
  3. Take stock of measures already underway – p94 stakeholder perception score chart
  • Decide on whether to produce a social report
  • Report adherence to standards, be open
  1. Contribute to CSR dialogue, join institutes
  1. What are the costs likely to be
  1. Increased costs of focus group sessions with stakeholders
  2. CSR manager and budget
  • Training of staff on CSR
  1. Production, publication and distribution of social report
  2. Website section devoted to CSR
  1. Employees
  2. Customers
    1. Steps for planning initiatives that weep out inappropriate programmes
  1. Identify business goals (purpose and accomplishment)
  2. Identify problem areas or areas of opportunity
  • Identify key-audience (consumer, regulators, employees)
  1. Asses internal/external environment (issues and barriers)
  2. Evaluate costs and benefits
  3. Define vision (what do you want to be in future)
  • Identify (brainstorm) programmes and activities that helps achieve vision
  • Evaluate what resources and capabilities you need (SFA)
  1. Identify cost and benefits of proposal
  2. Implement programme / activity to key activists
  3. Evaluate the project against cost/benefit
  1. The natural environment
  2. The wider community (including government)
  3. Contractors/suppliers

Contents of codes of ethics p83-84:

  1. Company obligations to employees
  2. Company obligations to shareholders
  3. Company obligations to customers
  4. Company responsibilities to suppliers
  5. Company responsibility to the community
  6. other stakeholders

Core models (pattern, plan or description showing main object or workings of concept):   Methods used:

Case studies, literature review and empirical research.


Caux Round Table – 7 general Principles p73-75 – most wide reaching in CSR

Relatedness to objective:

P22 “Trust and CSR are closely linked.”

Social Accountability 8000 (SA8000), AccountAbility 1000 (AA1000), Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) more on supporting economic, social and political value than ethics compared to Caux

Frameworks for measurement: Social auditing (SA), AA1000, Ethical Accounting Statement (EAS), GRI 8includes The Global Compact, AA1000, ISO14000, OECD guidelines for MNEs)p142, SA8000, The Global Sullivan Principles.

Likely benefits and costs p147. Several methods of measurement p 160+ table of Woods CSP modelp161&166

Relatedness to questions:

P27 extensive list of what people and governments can expect CSR to comprise, and p30 list of what to be expected in return.

P133 small export perhaps link to CSR if not exporting with a niche product

Arguments/points made (set of one or more declarative sentences):

Pxii “corporations will see for themselves – and many have seen this already – the need to behave more responsibly in the social area.”

P133 about among others Denmark “- are forced to interact on global markets because of their small domestic markets. Hence, /Denmark/ have become some of the most open and efficient exporters in the world. At the same time, each of these countries has become known for high levels of social (and environmental) responsibility at home.”

Criticises:  Friedman p13 and 17. 

Supports:  Critique: